virtual urinalysis lab

116 slides
2.99 MB
1267 views

Similar Presentations

Presentation Transcript

1

Click Here to Start the Lab

2

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleURINALYSIS LAB Click on the blackboard to view a larger blackboard for discussionWHAT DO I NEED TO HAND IN WITH THIS LAB When your are finished with this lab you will need to hand in the following for your lab report. Remember that all labs must have a cover sheet attached to the lab. Macroscopic Observations Data Sheet Chemstix Urinalysis Data Sheet Microscopic Observations Data Sheet Answers to Questions 1-7

3

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleURINALYSIS LAB At any point you can use your escape key to end the labClick Here to Go Directly to Macroscopic ObservationsClick Here to Go Directly to Chemstix UrinalysisClick Here to Go Directly to Microscopic ObservationsClick Here to Go Directly to Urinalysis QuestionsIf you are just starting this lab you should click on the CONTINUE button to the right

4

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleURINALYSIS LAB Click on the blackboard to view a larger blackboard for discussionTests on urine can provide clues to many diseases and information about your overall health. A routine urine screening test may be done to help find the cause for many types of symptoms. The kidneys remove waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood for elimination in the urine. Therefore, urine can contain hundreds of different bodily waste products. Many factors (such as diet, fluid intake, exercise, and kidney function) affect what is in urine.

5

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleA urine test may be done as part of a routine physical examination to screen for a disease or infection of the urinary tract. Symptoms that may lead to a urine test include discolored or foul-smelling urine, pain during urination, difficulty urinating, flank pain, or fever. Urine tests are also performed to monitor the treatment of certain conditions such as diabetes, kidney stones, a urinary tract infection, hypertension, or some types of kidney or liver disease.

6

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleMacroscopic examination requires only that the observer has a sense of sight and smell. The most cost-effective device used to screen urine chemistry is a plastic dipstick. This microchemistry system has been available for many years and allows qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis within a few minutes by simple but careful observation. The color change occurring on each segment of the strip is compared to an established color chart to obtain results. Microscopic urinalysis requires only a relatively inexpensive light microscope.

7

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleIn this lab we will perform three types of analysis on a urine sample. 1) MACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS 2) CHEMSTIX ANALYSIS 3) MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS For all three analysis you will need to complete data sheets describing your observations. You will need to print these data sheets out in order to record your data.

8

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleYou can access the data sheets and questions you will need by utilizing the links below.Macroscopic Observations Data SheetChemstix Urinalysis Data SheetMicroscopic Observations Data SheetUrinalysis Questions

9

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleThe urine sample was collected at the same time that you started the lab. You most likely viewed the collection process. The urine sample is potentially contaminated with pathogens. Wear latex barrier gloves and protective eyewear during the entire exercise. Place all disposable material that comes into contact with urine in the biohazard bag. Good luck and be careful.

10

Click Here to ContinueClick Here to Go Back to where you came from

11

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleURINALYSIS LAB At any point you can use your escape key to end the labClick Here to Go Directly to Macroscopic ObservationsClick Here to Go Directly to Chemstix UrinalysisClick Here to Go Directly to Microscopic ObservationsClick Here to Go Directly to Urinalysis Questions

12

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleMACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS The first part of a urinalysis is direct visual observation. We will observe the following characteristics of the urine sample. Be sure to enter your observations in the appropriate data table. COLOR TURBIDITY ODOR Be sure you have printed off the Data SheetMacroscopic Observations Data Sheet

13

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleCOLOR Normal, fresh urine is pale to dark yellow or amber in color and clear. The yellow color is due to the pigment urochrome, a metabolic product of hemoglobin breakdown. A red or red-brown (abnormal) color could be from a food dye, eating fresh beets, a drug, or the presence of either hemoglobin or myoglobin. If the sample contained many red blood cells, it would be cloudy as well as red.

14

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleCOLOR The intensity of the color generally indicates the concentration of the urine; pale or colorless urine indicates that it is dilute. Colorless urine may be caused by conditions such as long-term kidney disease or uncontrolled diabetes. Deep yellow urine indicates that it is concentrated. Dark yellow urine can be caused by conditions such as low fluid intake or dehydration. Vitamin B supplements can also turn urine bright yellow.

15

Urine SampleCOLOR The color of the urine sample is assessed subjectively and reported as: -Colorless -Light to medium yellow -Very dark yellow -Red to brownish red -Reddish brown to brown -Greenish tintClick Here to Continue

16

Urine SampleCOLOR Some examples of various urine colors and corresponding common causes are shown below:Click Here to Continue

17

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleClick on the urine sample on the shelf and record the Color and Intensity of color in your data table.

18

Urine SampleTURBIDITY Also called transparency, opacity or clarity, this test determines the cloudiness of urine. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine appear cloudy. The turbidity of the urine sample is gauged subjectively and reported as: -clear -slightly cloudy -cloudy -opaque -flocculent (cannot see through)Click Here to Continue

19

Urine SampleTURBIDITY Normally, fresh urine is clear to very slightly cloudy. Excess turbidity results from the presence of suspended particles in the urine. The cause can usually be determined based on the results of the microscopic urine sediment examination. The turbidity in the sample to the right was due to numerous crystals which precipitated upon cooling of the specimen to room temperature.Click Here to Continue

20

Urine SampleTURBIDITY Common causes of abnormal turbidity include : -increased cells (RBC, WBC) -numerous crystals -bacteria -lipiduria (lipids often rise to the surface) -mucus -semen -fecal contaminationClick Here to Continue

21

Urine SampleTURBIDITY Three urine samples are shown. The one at the left shows a red, cloudy appearance. The one in the center is red but clear. The one on the right is yellow, but cloudyClick Here to Continue

22

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleClick on the urine sample on the shelf and record the Turbidity in your data table.

23

Urine SampleODOR A normal odor for urine is a slightly "nutty" (aromatic) smell. Some foods (such as asparagus), vitamins, and antibiotics (such as penicillin) can cause urine to develop an unusual odor. Click Here to Continue

24

Urine SampleODOR Some diseases can cause a change in the normal odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a foul odor while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity odor. Urine that smells like maple syrup can indicate maple syrup urine disease, a condition caused by the body's inability to break down certain amino acids.Click Here to Continue

25

Click Here to ContinueUrine SampleClick on the urine sample on the shelf. Sample the urine with your virtual nose and record the Odor in your data table.A virtual nose is supplied in this instance. If you can identify the images emanating from the urine sample to the virtual nose, you will be able to enter a characteristic odor of the sample to the data sheet. If you are not able to identify the images click on the word ODOR belowODOR

26

Urine SampleMACROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS You have now completed your Macroscopic Observations on the urine sample. Be sure you have entered the data required on the Data Sheet you have printed out. If you need to return to the start of the Macroscopic Observations, you can use the links supplied below.Click Here to ContinueClick Here to Return to start of Macroscopic ObservationsClick Here to Print the Data Sheet

Browse More Presentations

Last Updated: 8th March 2018

Recommended PPTs