SAP Technical Overview

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Overview SAP Basis Functions

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Learning ObjectivesWhat the Basis system is How does SAP handle a transaction request Differentiating between the various work processes Understanding the basic functions of the Basis Module

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The Software-Oriented View of R/3

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The SAP R/3 System ArchitectureImplications for Application Programming Separate presentation and application layers implies that when you run an application program that requires user interaction, control of the program is continually passed backwards and forwards between layers. When a screen is ready for user input, the presentation layer is active, and the application server is inactive with regard to that particular program. As a consequence, the program logic in an application program that occurs between two screens is known as a DIALOG STEP.

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Application Layer (cont.) Application Server R/3 programs run on application servers The APPLICATION SERVER communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using a MESSAGE SERVER. Main components: Work Processes (Dialog, Update, Enqueue, Batch, Spool) Dispatcher Gateway Message Server The SAP R/3 System Architecture

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What happens when I send a request to SAP?

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Application ServerPresentation . . . InternetApplicationDatabaseCommunicationSAPGUISAPGUIInternetOfficeWork- processDispatcherTCP/IPRemote SQLIPCLocal Buffer for R/3 Data,DW-Objects, ABAP-Objects

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DispatcherProgram which manages resources of the R/3 applications Receives requests from user and passes them to the corresponding work processes Only one dispatcher per application server

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Dispatcher TasksBalances the workload between the processes Buffer management in main memory Connection with the presentation level Organization of the communication processes

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Work ProcessResponsible for executing R/3 application tasksDatabase InterfaceTask HandlerABAP/4 ProcessorDialog InterpreterWork Process

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Different Kind of Work Processes for different TasksDialogSAP DispatcherBatchSpoolUpdateEnqueueSBMGMessageGatewayR/2R/3VE

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Dialog Work ProcessesDialogResponsible for the interactive tasks of the R/3 system Dialog work processes execute only one dialog step at a time and are immediately freed for the next user request Constantly switching between users

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Background Work ProcessesResponsible for executing ABAP programs submitted for background execution Batch jobs schedule the sequence of program execution Used for running long and time consuming programsBatchB

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Spool Work ProcessesResponsible for formatting the data for printing and passing it to the host spool system Only one spool work process allowed per serverSpool

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Enqueue Work ProcessesResponsible for the lock management system Synchronizes database access for the multiple application servers and work processes Only one enqueue process per R/3 system to ensure data integrityEnqueueE

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Update Work ProcessesResponsible for making database changes requested by dialog and background processes For better performance, this process should be on the database serverUpdateV

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V1 vs. V2 Update ProcessesTime-critical processes are inside V1 and less critical ones within V2 Error situations in V1 : changes rolled back and V2 components not executed V2 : only changes of V2 components rolled backUpdateV

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Message ServerUsed by different application servers to exchange data and internal messages Routes messages, such as update or batch job starts, between application servers One message server per systemMMessage

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Gateway ServerAllows communication between R/3, R/2, and external applications Exchanges large amounts of information between application servers Gateway can reside on any of the connected systemsGGatewayR/2R/3

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Work ProcessesNumber of work processes can only be changed after restarting the system Should have at least two dialog work processes Need to have at least one V1 and V2 processes Number of spool processes cannot be changed

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Application ServerPresentation . . . InternetApplicationDatabaseCommunicationSAPGUISAPGUIInternetOfficeWork- processDispatcherTCP/IPRemote SQLIPCLocal Buffer for R/3 Data,DW-Objects, ABAP-Objects

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Processing of a SAP Transaction (1)TCP/IPPresentation . . . InternetApplicationDatabaseCommunicationSAPGUIWork- processDispatcherRemote SQLIPCLocal Buffer for R/3 Data,DW-Objects, ABAP-ObjectsStart TransactionAssign User request to WorkprocessFetch data from buffer/databaseRe- turn data for next step12345

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Processing of a SAP Transaction (2)Presentation . . . InternetApplicationDatabaseCommunicationSAPGUIWork- processDispatcherTCP/IPRemote SQLIPCLocal Buffer for R/3 Data,DW-Objects, ABAP-Objects123568Fetch data from buffer/database9710Assign User request to WorkprocessRe- turn data for next step

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Processing of a SAP Transaction (3)Presentation . . . InternetApplicationDatabaseCommunicationSAPGUIWork- processDispatcherTCP/IPRemote SQLIPCLocal Buffer for R/3 Data,DW-Objects, ABAP-Objects1234568971011121314Update data on databaseEnd transactionRequest for update

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SAP Communication InterfacesHigh LevelLow levelSAP TechnologyCommunication InterfaceCommunication SystemMail MAPI SMTP X.400EDI Business APIRFCCPI-CQ-APIIDOCALEOLE

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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