Mesopotamia and Sumer The Ancient Near East Section 1

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Preview Starting Points Map: Fertile Crescent Main Idea / Reading Focus Geography Promotes Civilization Sumer Map: Ancient Mesopotamia Sumerian Culture Empires in Mesopotamia Quick Facts: Mesopotamian AchievementsMesopotamia and Sumer

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Reading Focus How did geography promote civilization in Mesopotamia? What features defined the civilization of Sumer? What were Sumer’s main cultural achievements? What events led to later empires in Mesopotamia?Main Idea The first known civilization arose in Mesopotamia, and its culture and innovations influenced later civilizations in the region for thousands of years.Mesopotamia and Sumer

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Fertile area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers became site of world’s first civilization Fertile Crescent well suited for agriculture Farming in Mesopotamia posed challenges: If water levels too high, crops washed away If water levels too low, crops died People developed methods to control water: Basins, canals, and dikes Organization: assigning jobs, allocating resources Geography Promotes Civilization

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Summarize What factors influenced the rise of civilization in Mesopotamia?Answer(s): fertile land; plentiful food; need to organize people for jobs

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Sumer

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Writing Cuneiform: Sumerian writing Business accounts and records Law, grammar, literature Scribes The Arts Arches, ramps, columns Sculpture Cylinder seals Math and Sciences System based on number 60 Geometry May have been the first to use the wheel Invented the plow Basic surgery Trade and Society Traded for wood and metals Social hierarchy Distinct male/female rolesSumerian Culture

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Draw Conclusions Why was the Sumerians’ development of cuneiform a major turning point in history? Answer(s): After the development of cuneiform, humankind moved from prehistory into the historical age.

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Each conquering invader adapted aspects of Sumerian culture. Thus Sumerian civilization continued to influence life in Mesopotamia. Empires in Mesopotamia

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Sequence Who ruled Mesopotamia after Sumer, and in what order?Answer(s): Akkadians, Amorites, Babylonians

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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