Archaeology of landscapes (an interdisciplinary world)
Extensive- traditional “landrover” surveys, more successful in identifying large sites
Intensive field-walking, that identifies “off-site” features, “specialty sites”, villages,
hamlets, extra-urban cult sites, “artifact scatters”, “linear hollows”, mining sites
Architectural, topographic surveying, GPS
Excavation sampling, surface scraping,
Paleoenvironmental studies, Palynology: Holocene vegetation change, climatology, also dendrochronology
Geomorphology: alluviation, soil erosion that buries archaeological sites, changing course of rivers,
coastlines, environmental degradation etc. “Boring” and “Coring”, soil samplingEthnography of landscapes: what do contemporary societies make of their environment? Ethnobotany.
Remote sensing (subsurface remains-electric resistivity, magnetometry, Ground Penetrating Radar),
non-invasive techniques, use of satellite imagery (declassified military surveillance images,
imaging spectrometers recording electromagnetic signals of the earth’s surface),
aerial (baloon, blimp, kite) photography
GIS: Geographical Information Systems- spatial integration of landscape data.