Introduction to Computers and C++

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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C++—a powerful computer programming language that’s appropriate for technically oriented people with little or no programming experience, and for experienced programmers to use in building substantial information systems. You’ll write instructions commanding computers to perform those kinds of tasks. Software (i.e., the instructions you write) controls hardware (i.e., computers). You’ll learn object-oriented programming—today’s key programming methodology. You’ll create many software objects in the real world. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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C++ is one of today’s most popular software development languages. This text provides an introduction to programming in C++11—the latest version standardized through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In use today are more than a billion general-purpose computers and billions more cell phones, smartphones and handheld devices (such as tablet computers). © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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The number of mobile Internet users will reach approximately 134 million by 2013. (www.circleid.com/posts/mobile_internet_users_to_reach_134_million_by_2013/) Smartphone sales surpassed personal computer sales in 2011. (www.mashable.com/2012/02/03/smartphone-sales-overtake-pcs/) Tablet sales are expected to account for over 20% of all personal computer sales by 2015. (www.forrester.com/ER/Press/Release/0,1769,1340,00.html) By 2014, the smartphone app market is expected to exceed $40 billion. (Inc., December 2010/January 2011, pages 116–123) This explosive growth is creating significant opportunities for programming mobile apps. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Many of the most influential and successful businesses of the last two decades are technology companies, including Apple, IBM, Hewlett Packard, Dell, Intel, Motorola, Cisco, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Facebook, Twitter, Groupon, Foursquare, Yahoo!, eBay and many more. These companies are major employers of people who study computer science, computer engineering, information systems or related disciplines. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Computers can perform calculations and make logical decisions phenomenally faster than human beings can. Today’s personal computers can perform billions of calculations in one second—more than a human can perform in a lifetime. Supercomputers are already performing thousands of trillions (quadrillions) of instructions per second! Computers process data under the control of sequences of instructions called computer programs. These programs guide the computer through ordered actions specified by people called computer programmers. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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The programs that run on a computer are referred to as software. You’ll learn a key programming methodology that’s enhancing programmer productivity, thereby reducing software-development costs—object-oriented programming. A computer consists of various devices referred to as hardware (e.g., the keyboard, screen, mouse, hard disks, memory, DVD drives and processing units). Computing costs are dropping dramatically, owing to rapid developments in hardware and software technologies. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Computers that might have filled large rooms and cost millions of dollars decades ago are now inscribed on silicon chips smaller than a fingernail, costing perhaps a few dollars each. Silicon-chip technology has made computing so economical that computers have become commodity. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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For many decades, hardware costs have fallen rapidly. Every year or two, the capacities of computers have approximately doubled inexpensively. This trend often is called Moore’s Law, named for the person who identified it in the 1960s, Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel. © Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Moore’s Law and related observations apply especially to the amount of memory that computers have for programs, the amount of secondary storage (such as disk storage) they have to hold programs and data over longer periods of time, and their processor speeds—the speeds at which computers execute their programs (i.e., do their work). Similar growth has occurred in the communications field.© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Costs have plummeted as enormous demand for communications bandwidth (i.e., information-carrying capacity) has attracted intense competition. Such phenomenal improvement is fostering the Information Revolution.© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Regardless of differences in physical appearance, computers can be envisioned as divided into various logical units or sections (Fig. 1.2)© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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© Copyright 1992-2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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