IBLS Lecture 11 White Blood Cells (Leucocytes)

24 slides
0.82 MB
1006 views

Similar Presentations

Presentation Transcript

1

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008 IBLS Lecture 11 White Blood Cells (Leucocytes)

2

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Objectives At the end of the lecture you should be able to: Describe the role of WBCs in the body defence mechanisms. Describe the normal functions of the various WBCs. Describe the role of diapedesis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis as function of the WBCs. Describe the basic concept of innate and acquired immunity. Describe the functional classification of lymphocytes. Describe the cells participating in cellular & humoral immunity.  

3

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008White blood cellsWBC: mobile units of the body's protective system. Normal count is 4000-11,000 /µL Types: Granulocytes (Polymorphnuclear or "polys"): Neutrophils 60 % Eosinophils 2 % Basophils 0.4 % Agranulocytes (mononuclear): Lymphocytes 30 % Monocytes 5 %

4

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

5

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Life span Granulocytes: 4-8 hours in blood, 4-5 days in tissues. Monocytes: 10-20 hours in blood, months in tissue (tissue macrophages) Lymphocytes live for weeks or months.

6

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Neutrophils and Macrophages defend against infections

7

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

8

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008PhagocytosisDefinition: Cellular ingestion of the offending agent. Most important function of neutrophils and macrophages. Selective process. Phagocytosis is increased if: Surface of particle is rough. Lacks protective protein coat. Binding of antibodies to antigen (opsonization).

9

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Phagoytosis by neutrophilsAlso called polys: first line of defense in bacterial infections. Mature cells that can attack and destroy bacteria even in the circulating blood. Attach to the particle and project pseudopodia around it→ an enclosed chamber that contains the phagocytized particle which breaks away → free floating phagosome. Can phagocytize 3-20 bacteria before it dies.

10

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

11

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Phagocytosis by monocytesImmature in blood (1-2 days) In tissues → mature and enlarge → tissue macrophages. Much more powerful phagocytes than neutophils. Can phagocytize as many as 100 bacteria. Can engulf large particles e.g. malarial parasites. Can survive after phagocytosis for months.

12

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

13

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Neutrophils and monocytes reach the site of infection by the following mechanisms: They squeeze through the pores of the capillaries by diapedesis. They move toward the site of infection by amoeboid movement. Different chemicals released by microbes and inflamed tissues attract neutrophils and macrophages→ chemotaxis.

14

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

15

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

16

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

17

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Basophils Similar to mast cells outside capillaries in connective tissue. Both basophils and mast cells release heparin into blood, which prevent blood coagulation. Play a role in allergic reactions. When ruptured histamine and other substances released cause local vascular and tissue reactions that are characteristic of allergic manifestations.

18

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Eosinophils Produced in large numbers in persons with parasitic infections. They attach themselves to the surface of the parasite and release substances that kill the invading parasite. Release of eosinophil chemotactic factor from mast cells and basophils → make them collect in tissues in which allergic reaction has occurred → prevent the spread of the inflammatory process (detoxify substances and destroy Ag-Ab complexes).

19

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008ImmunityDefinition: The ability of the body to resist all types of organisms or toxins that damage the tissues. Types: Natural (innate): general protective mechanisms e.g. phagocytosis, acidic secretion and digestive enzymes of the GIT, resistance of the skin to invasion, etc... Acquired: the ability to develop powerful protective mechanisms against specific invading agents e.g. lethal bacteria and viruses.

20

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008Types of Acquired ImmunityHumoral or B-cell immunity: involves the development of circulating Ab that are capable of attacking an invading agent. Cell mediated or T-cell immunity: is achieved through the formation of large numbers of activated lymphocytes that are specifically designed to destroy the foreign agent.

21

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008LymphocytesLymphocytes are responsible for acquired immunity. They are present in lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues throughout the body. B lymphocytes: Processed in bone marrow. When exposed to an Ag, they differentiate to plasma cells that produce antibodies (gamma globulins). This initiates the destruction of the antigen. T lymphocytes: Processed in thymus. They release chemicals that destroy target cells with which they make contact such as virus infected cells and cancer cells.

22

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

23

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008

24

2nd Year Medicine- IBLS Module May 2008SummaryWhat are the different types of WBCs? What is their count and percentage? What is their role in protecting the body against infections? What are the different types of immunity? What role do lymphocytes play in acquired immunity?

Browse More Presentations

Last Updated: 8th March 2018

Recommended PPTs