Platelets and Metastasis In Mice and in Humans, Platelets are Important Mediators of
Metastatic processGabriel Gasic, Tatiana Gasic, Carleton Stewart PNAS 61:46-52, 1968 Transfusion of Platelet Rich Plasma Reverses
Neuraminidase Effect on Metastasis Treatment of Mice with Anti-Platelet Serum
Produces the Same Effect as Neuraminidase How do platelets contribute to metastasis?
In many cancer patients platelet numbers are elevated.
Platelets in cancer patients are activated (elevated levels of
serum thrombin, von Willebrand factor, VEGF).
Prostacyclin/Thromboxane A2 balance disturbed in many
Hypercoagulable state of blood in many cancer patients
Heparin (an anti-coagulant) protected against pulmonary
metastasis in animal modelsHypotheis 1.
Activation of clotting pathway. However,
Clinical trials that used anti-coagulants (vitamin K
antagonists such as warfarin) failed.And yet….
Retrospective analysis indicated that cancer patients that were
treated with low doses of heparin before cancer surgery showed
Cancer patients treated with heparin to combat venous
thromboemolism also showed improved survival. ...