Food, Soil, and Pest

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Chapter 12 Food, Soil, and Pest Management

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Core Case Study: Organic Agriculture Is on the RiseOrganic agriculture Crops grown without using synthetic pesticides, synthetic inorganic fertilizers, or genetically engineered seeds Animals grown without using antibiotics or synthetic hormones U.S. in 2008: .6% cropland; 3.5% food sales Europe, Australia and New Zealand much higher

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Industrialized Agriculture vs. Organic AgricultureFig. 12-1, p. 277

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Fig. 12-1a, p. 277Industrialized AgricultureUses synthetic inorganic fertilizers and sewage sludge to supply plant nutrientsMakes use of synthetic chemical pesticidesUses conventional and genetically modified seedsDepends on nonrenewable fossil fuels (mostly oil and natural gas)Produces significant air and water pollution and greenhouse gasesIs globally export-orientedUses antibiotics and growth hormones to produce meat and meat products

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Fig. 12-1b, p. 277Organic AgricultureEmphasizes prevention of soil erosion and the use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure and compost, but no sewage sludge to help replace lost plant nutrientsEmploys crop rotation and biological pest controlUses no genetically modified seedsReduces fossil fuel use and increases use of renewable energy such as solar and wind power for generating electricityProduces less air and water pollution and greenhouse gasesIs regionally and locally orientedUses no antibiotics or growth hormones to produce meat and meat products

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12-1 What Is Food Security and Why Is It Difficult to Attain? Concept 12-1A Many people in less-developed countries have health problems from not getting enough food, while many people in more-developed countries have health problems from eating too much food. Concept 12-1B The greatest obstacles to providing enough food for everyone are poverty, political upheaval, corruption, war, and the harmful environmental effects of food production.

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Many People Have Health Problems Because They Do Not Get Enough to EatFood security All or most people in a country have daily access to enough nutritious food to lead active and healthy lives Food insecurity Chronic hunger and poor nutrition Root cause: poverty Political upheaval, war, corruption, bad weather

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Starving Children in Sudan Collect AntsFig. 12-2, p. 279

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Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and Malnutrition (1)Macronutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Micronutrients Vitamins Minerals

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Key Nutrients for a Healthy Human Life Table 12-1, p. 279

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Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and Malnutrition (2)Chronic undernutrition, hunger Chronic malnutrition 1 in 6 people in less-developed countries is chronically undernourished or malnourished Famine Drought, flooding, war, other catastrophes

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World HungerFigure 15, Supplement 8

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Many People Do No Get Enough Vitamins and MineralsMost often vitamin and mineral deficiencies in people in less-developed countries Iron Vitamin A Iodine Golden rice

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Woman with Goiter in BangladeshFig. 12-3, p. 280

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Many People Have Health Problems from Eating Too MuchOvernutrition Excess body fat from too many calories and not enough exercise Similar health problems to those who are underfed Lower life expectancy Greater susceptibility to disease and illness Lower productivity and life quality

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12-2 How Is Food Produced? Concept 12-2 We have used high-input industrialized agriculture and lower-input traditional methods to greatly increase supplies of food.

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Food Production Has Increased DramaticallyThree systems produce most of our food Croplands: 77% on 11% world’s land area Rangelands, pastures, and feedlots: 16% on 29% of world’s land area Aquaculture: 7% Importance of wheat, rice, and corn Tremendous increase in global food production

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Industrialized Crop Production Relies on High-Input MonoculturesIndustrialized agriculture, high-input agriculture Goal is to steadily increase crop yield Plantation agriculture: cash crops Primarily in less-developed countries Increased use of greenhouses to raise crops

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Heavy Equipment Used to Harvest Wheat in the United StatesFig. 12-4, p. 281

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Plantation Agriculture: Oil Palms on Borneo in MalaysiaFig. 12-5, p. 281

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Case Study: Hydroponics: Growing Crops without SoilHydroponics: growing plants in nutrient-rich water solutions rather than soil Grow indoors almost anywhere, year-round Grow in dense urban areas Recycle water and fertilizers Little or no need for pesticides No soil erosion Takes money to establish Help make the transition to more sustainable agriculture

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Hydroponic Salad GreensFig. 12-6, p. 282

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Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on Low-Input Polycultures (1)Traditional subsistence agriculture Human labor and draft animals for family food Traditional intensive agriculture Higher yields through use of manure and water

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Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on Low-Input Polycultures (2)Polyculture Benefits over monoculture Slash-and-burn agriculture Subsistence agriculture in tropical forests Clear and burn a small plot Grow many crops that mature at different times Reduced soil erosion Less need for fertilizer and water

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Science Focus: Soil Is the Base of Life on Land (1)Soil composition Eroded rock Mineral nutrients Decaying organic matter Water Air Microscopic decomposers

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Science Focus: Soil Is the Base of Life on Land (2)Layers (horizons) of mature soils O horizon: leaf litter A horizon: topsoil B horizon: subsoil C horizon: parent material, often bedrock

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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