Fluids & Electrolytes Part 1

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ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY FLUID & ELECTROLYTES Part 1 Instructor Terry WisethNORTHLAND COLLEGE

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FLUID ELECTROLYTE HOMEOSTASISIn a healthy individual fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations are maintained within strict homeostatic limits through the interaction of several organ systems

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FLUID ELECTROLYTE HOMEOSTASISTotal body water (TBW) can be divided by cell membranes into two main compartments: 1) Extracellular fluid (ECF) fluid outside cells 1/3 of total body water 2) Intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid inside cells 2/3 of total body water

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FLUID ELECTROLYTE HOMEOSTASISThe ECF is further divided into: 1) Blood plasma (80%) 2) Interstitial fluid (20%) These two ECF compartments are separated by a capillary membraneInterstitial fluid

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FLUID COMPARTMENTSEffectively there are three compartments 1) Intracellular 2) Interstitial 3) Plasma

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FLUID COMPARTMENTSCYTOPLASMINTERSTITIAL FLUIDPLASMA(Intracellular)(Extracellular)CapillaryCell

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ELECTROLYTESDissolved ions in the: Cell, interstitial fluid, blood Potassium (K) Sodium (Na) Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Chlorine (Cl) Bicarbonate (H2CO3) Proteins (Pr)

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ELECTROLYTESThere are three key concepts in consideration of fluid and electrolyte management: 1) Cell Membrane Permeability 2) Osmolarity 3) Electroneutrality

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CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITYRefers to the ability of a cell membrane to allow certain substances to pass freely Other substances like charged ions (Na+) cannot cross the membrane and are trapped on one side of itH2ONa+Na+H2ONa+Na+Na+H2OH2OH2OH2OH2OH2ONa+Na+Na+

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CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITYIn other words “No Trespassing” Cell membranes allow some things to pass and blocks passage of others

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OSMOLARITYOsmolarity is a property of particles in solution If a substance can dissociate in solution, it will contribute to the osmolarity of the solution

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OSMOLARITYIn other words “Water, water every where but not a drop to drink” If you are thirsty, you cannot drink salt water

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ELECTRONEUTRALITYThe principle of Electroneutrality means that the overall number of positive and negative charges balances For instance, in conditions like renal tubular acidosis where HCO3- is lost, chloride is retainedCl-

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ELECTRONEUTRALITYIn other words “Cells do not make good batteries” Positive and negative charges inside and outside the cell must be equal+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+--+Click to show a charged battery

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ELECTROLYTESWhen the body is in “fluid balance” it means that the various body compartments (cells, tissues, organs) contain the required amount of fluids to carry out normal bodily functions

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ELECTROLYTESFluid balance and electrolyte balance are inseparable In a healthy individual, the volume of fluid in each compartment remains stable

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ELECTROLYTESLoss of electrolytes can have serious consequences for the body In severe dehydration, the loss of electrolytes can result in circulatory problems such as tachycardia (rapid heart beat) and problems with the nervous system such as loss of consciousness and shock

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ELECTROLYTESElectrolytes serve three general functions to maintain: 1) Normal metabolism 2) Proper fluid movement between compartments 3) The acid-base balance

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ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION OF PLASMA AND INTERSTITIAL FLUID

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ELECTROLYTES

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ELECTROLYTESPLASMAINTERSTITIAL FLUID

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IONS AND MOLECULESIons are charged atoms ex: Na+, Cl-, Mg++ Molecules are formed when two or more atoms or ions are combined ex: H2O, C6H12O6, NaCl

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MOVEMENT OF BODY FLUIDSFluid moves between the compartments of the body through various mechanisms Substances leave and enter capillaries via three mechanisms: 1) Vesicular transport 2) Diffusion 3) Bulk flow

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VESICULAR TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSIONVesicular transport and diffusion are associated with the movement of solutes (electrolytes)

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BULK FLOWBulk flow is the most important process for the maintenance of relative volumes (fluids) of blood and interstitial fluid Bulk flow involves the movement of both solvent (fluids) and solute into the interstitial space

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MOVEMENT OF IONS AND MOLECULESIons and molecules pass through membranes by: Simple Diffusion Passage through channels Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport (Na-K pump)

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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