driving indiana growth by coal development

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Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research Located in the Energy Center at Discovery Park, Purdue UniversityMarty W. Irwin Director, Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research 765/494-7414 mwirwin@purdue.edu Society of Mining and Reclamation Coal: The Answer, not the Problem December 3&4, 2007

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. COAL 1,547.5 52.6% PETROLEUM 890.7 29.7% NATURAL GAS 512.1 17.1% RENEWABLES 46.3 1.5% Indiana Primary Energy Consumption, Source & Sector, 2002 (Trillion Btu, 1012 Btu) TRANSPORTATION 648.7 22.5%INDUSTRIAL 1346.3 46.7%RESIDENTIAL & COMMERCIAL 532.3 + 353.1 = 885.4 30.7%Source %Sector %40.2%18.6%9.3%44.1%47.8%7.1%1.0%4.2%72.2%22.9%0.6%0.5%22.6%31.8%96.2%0.4%2.9%0.4%97.6%0.8%1.6%42.6%24.8%29.8%2.5%2.8%13.1%78.1%6.3%76.9%Total = 2.88 Quads (1015 Btu)http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/state.html?q_state_a=in&q_state=INDIANAhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_use/total/pdf/use_in.pdfNet inter-state flow of electricity/losses = -116.10.0% ELECTRIC POWER 1,237.4 INDUST 524.9 RES 349.0 COMM 247.2 TRANS 0.2 EXPORT 116.1 0.0%Energy for electricity in each sector is included

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COAL’S CURRENT SOURCESSource: Indiana Coal Report 2006; Figure 3.4.

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COAL USE TREND Indiana coal consumption growing much faster than Indiana coal production

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Underground has increased as a percentage of the whole increasing production cost

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COAL’S IMPACTCurrently, coal directly adds $750+ million and 2,836 jobs to our Indiana’s economy (includes aggregate industry). This vastly understates coal’s contribution to economic development: Coal unlike petroleum or natural gas has its entire economic impact within the states borders. Coal is mined, washed, transported, consumed and the waste is recycled / or disposed within the state each phase generating jobs and revenues streams. The coal dollar multiplies faster and farther than any other industrial economic activity. One ton of coal generated $59.59* of activity within the state regardless of how the coal is used. (A $2 billion economic impact and 11,000 total direct and indirect employment) Major reduction on SOx & NOx taking place Scrubbers & CCT being considered for and implemented both allow for increased Indiana coal use. As Scrubbers come on line the amount of aggregate increases, you need both * Expanding the Utilization of Indiana Coals, page 20

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Coal Answer to the emissions problem? Increasing the use of electricity focuses the emissions issue back to the Utility, rent pollution control when you buy electricity.

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Coal prices are relatively stable in real terms while other forms continue to rise. In Indiana coal = electricity Low energy price helps the economy of the state. If we have a least cost option, use it.

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Indiana electric requirement by scenario 45.9% increase in electric demand in next 17 years SUFG50,775 GW increase

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China does not have an EPA, an OSHA, a local land use permitting process or the right of individuals to complain about relocation. NO NIMBY, 30% of population does not have electricity

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Neither China nor India use gasification for power production, nor do they use gasification for CO2 control

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POWER DEMAND INCREASING DOMESTICALLY

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THE REAL PROBLEM We are not ready

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WHAT WIL WORK TO MEET THE DEMAND? Don’t confuse Energy Efficiency with Government Control

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WHAT ABOUT THE FUTURE?Import Substitution Increase Coal Exports Increase “coal by wire” All these solutions affected by likely CO2 legislation, other coal use environmental challenges, if we assume the status quo will persist. So: What to do? Enter CCTR: objective to “increase use of Indiana coal in an economically and environmentally sound manner”

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INDIANA’S STRATEGIC ENERGY PLAN

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THE STATE STRATEGY

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THE STATE STRATEGY

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Evolution of the Coal Power Plant Yet the electricity per ton of coal input stays level

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It takes Power to make Power

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CAN WE USE COAL?

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How to Get There? Convert Coal to a Usable Resource

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From the gasification basics several products are available to be made.The basic process described above requires varying amounts of hydrogen. CH4 is methane and is the basic product of coal gasification. To this you add Oxygen and the result is syngas: 2H2 + CO. Syngas is the building block for coal based alternate energy production. The Syngas can yield different products by adding Hydrogen and CO. This is the N, in (2n+1)H2+nCO yields CnH2n+2 + nH2O Changing the value of N changes the end product: Chemical Product N value H/C ratio CH4 methane N=1 4.0 C3H8 propane N=3 2.67 C8H18 gasoline N=8 2.25 C16H34 diesel fuel N=16 1.89 The further one processes Syngas the lower the H/C ratio. We are already well along in the Hydrogen economy.

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WHAT IS THE FUTURE? This is not theory

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CO2 The Huge ChallengeCO2 Capture & Sequestration Is there something better? Yes CO2 Reuse. CBM. New Albany Shale to Methane.

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CTL Economic Impact What in it for usThe overall economic impact of mining 1.8 Million Tons of extra coal is over $108 Million per yearThe estimated value of 10,000 B/D production (daily production of over 5,500 barrels of diesel, 4,400 barrels of naphtha, 1,200 MWh & 180 Tons of elemental sulfur) exceeds $266 Million per year

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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