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FIRST AID Essential QuestionsWhat is first aid? Why are the first five minutes of an emergency situation the most critical? How should you treat an open wound? What are the different types of burns? What is the Good Samaritan Law?

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How do you rate? Yes, No, Sometimes I make a point of knowing the names of all my family’s health care professionals. I keep a list of emergency phone numbers near a telephone in my home. I can help someone who has swallowed a poison I take small bites of food when eating and chew each bite slowly before swallowing. I know what action to take to help victims of choking. 6. I know how to administer CPR. 7. I know what steps to take to stop heavy bleeding. 8. I am able to tell the difference between minor and serious burns and can treat each kind. 9. I know how to help with common emergencies such as nosebleed, fainting, heat cramps, or frostbite. 10. I can identify poisonous plants and spiders.

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-What first-aid or emergency-related behaviors are identified here? -How can familiarity with these procedures help you protect your own health and the health of other? I make a point of knowing the names of all my family’s health care professionals. I keep a list of emergency phone numbers near a telephone in my home. I can help someone who has swallowed a poison I take small bites of food when eating and chew each bite slowly before swallowing. I know what action to take to help victims of choking. 6. I know how to administer CPR. 7. I know what steps to take to stop heavy bleeding. 8. I am able to tell the difference between minor and serious burns and can treat each kind. 9. I know how to help with common emergencies such as nosebleed, fainting, heat cramps, or frostbite. 10. I can identify poisonous plants and spiders.

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51-1-29. Liability of persons rendering emergency care Any person, including any person licensed to practice medicine and surgery pursuant to Article 2 of Chapter 34 of Title 43 and including any person licensed to render services ancillary thereto, who in good faith renders emergency care at the scene of an accident or emergency to the victim or victims thereof without making any charge therefor shall not be liable for any civil damages as a result of any act or omission by such person in rendering emergency care or as a result of any act or failure to act to provide or arrange for further medical treatment or care for the injured person. Georgia Good Samaritan Law

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It is the immediate, temporary care given to a person who has become sick or who has been injured. First aid is administered in the first few seconds or minutes following an accident or person becoming sick. Administering first aid until a proper medical authority arrives on the scene can mean the difference between life and death! What is First Aid?

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Priorities in an Emergency Situation1. Check the immediate surroundings for possible dangers. Move the person only if their life is threatened. Ex: water deep enough for drowning, car that may catch on fire, or a room filled with smoke. 2. Check to see if the victim is conscious. If not, call for an ambulance immediately! 3. Check for breathing & be sure the victim has an open airway Administer CPR! (We will learn this later in the week) 4. Control severe bleeding. Apply direct pressure to the wound. Use gloves or other protective barrier to prevent the spread of diseases. 5. Check the victim for poisoning. A poison is any substance- solid, liquid or gas that causes injury, illness, or death when introduced to the body. (We will cover later in the week) 6. Send for medical help. Dial 911!!!

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Secondary Emergency MeasuresLearn as much as you can as to what happened. Look after the victim closely for safety and comfort. Make sure the victim maintains normal body temp Loosen tight or binding clothing. Always try to reassure victim, part of your job is to keep them calm.

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Types of WoundsAbrasions Lacerations Puncture Avulsions How to treat open wounds: 1. Stop the Bleeding 2. Protect the wound 3. Treat for shock 4. Get help

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AbrasionAlso known as a scrape It damages the outer layer of skin and usually has little to no bleeding but can become easily infected.

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Laceration or cut is generally caused by a sharp object like a knife or glass. They can have jagged or smooth edges and usually are bleeding. Deep cuts can result in in heavy bleeding, as well as damage to nerves, large blood vessels, and other soft tissue.

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Puncture Woundcaused by a pointed object piercing the skin. External bleeding is usually limited, but damage to internal organs and infection is common. The risk of infection becomes even greater when the object remains in the skin.

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a wound that results when tissue is separated partly or completely from a persons body. Can occur from automobile accidents and dog bites. Because severed body parts can be reattached surgically, they should be sent along with the victim to the hospital, packed in ice or water if possible to preserve the tissue. Avulsion

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Stop the bleedingApply direct pressure to the top of the wound or to a pressure point. This prevents blood loss without interfering with circulation. When applying direct pressure, use a thick, clean cloth and press firmly with the heel of your hand, adding fresh layers as the blood soaks through.

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2. Protect the WoundUse a clean cloth over the open wound to help to prevent infection. If no cloth, use a coat, undershirt, or any other clean covering will do.

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Shock is the failure of the cardiovascular system to keep adequate blood circulating to the vital organs of the body. Symptoms can be confusion, accelerated or slowed pulse rate, trembling, weakness in the arms and legs, pale or clammy skin, pale or blush lips, and enlarged pupils. When treating for shock keep person laying down, maintain body temperature, and elevate their feet above their heart (helps return blood to heart). NEVER give a person in shock food or water. 3. Treat for Shock

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4. Get HelpThe wounded victim needs immediate help. Send someone for help or shout for help if you are alone. Leave the victim only after you have performed first aid and you feel like you could leave.

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Recognizing Severe BurnsFirst Degree- These are superficial burns, like most sunburns. They involve the top layer of skin. Healing takes 5 to 7 days. Second Degree- Involve the top several layers of skin. The skin will have blisters. Healing takes 3 to 4 weeks. Third Degree- Destroy all layers of the skin as well as nerves, muscles, fat, and bones. The burn looks black or brown.

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2nd Degree Burn

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When skin is blistered or charred, requires immediate attention Ease the burn with plenty of cool water, and place a clean, dry dressing over the burned area. If possible, raise the burned area above the heart. Do not attempt to remove clothing that is stuck to the burn on to treat burns where the skin has been burned away. Treating Burns

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Group ActivityFirst Aid Kits are VERY important to have. Many people store them in their cars, homes, and places of work. In your groups, come up with 20 items that you feel are essential to have in a first aid kit.

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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