Chapter 3 Effects of IT on Strategy and Competition

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Revenue Management and Project Management: An IntroductionJason C. H. Chen (陳周宏), Ph.D. Professor, Graduate School of Business, Gonzaga University Spokane, WA 99258 USA Editor-in-chief, International Journal of Revenue Management (IJRM) chen@jepson.gonzaga.eduMing Chi University of Technology Summer 2012 Taipei, Taiwan

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OutlineIntroduction Business Models and Evolutions of Economy Value Creation/Innovation Red vs. Blue Ocean Strategy Examples/applications of revenue management Major Revenue Management Problems Future Research Conclusion

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Source: Compustat. Grant explored ROEs for these industries for the years 1985-1997: R. M. Grant, Contemporary Strategy Analysis: Concepts, Techniques, Applications (Oxford, U. K.: Blackwell, 2002) p. 68.Industry Profitability, 1981-2001 Industry ROE ROA 1. Pharmaceuticals 25.87% 10.27% 2. Chemicals and allied products 21.70 7.88 3. Food and kindred products 24.78 7.25 4. Printing and publishing 16.30 6.68 5. Rubber and miscellaneous plastic 15.07 6.25 6. Fabricated metal products 19.00 5.58 7. Paper and allied products 13.77 4.70 8. Electronics and electrical equipment (no computers) 9.63 4.67 9. Nonferrous metals 10.39 4.23 10. Machinery, except electrical 15.69 3.80 11. Petroleum and coal products 13.25 3.76 12. Textile mill products 5.11 3.71 13. Aircraft, guided missiles, and parts 14.02 3.57 14. Stone, clay, and glass products 9.16 3.44 15. Motor vehicles and equipment 11.91 3.16 16. Iron and steel 6.40 3.14 17. Airlines (transportation by air) 2.68 2.05

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Firm Profitability, 1981-2001Source: CompustatFirm ROA Firm ROA Pharmaceuticals Airlines Bristol Myers Squibb 13.71% Southwest Airlines 4.85% Merck 13.37 AMR 1.51 Schering Plough 12.89 Delta Airlines 1.50 WYETH American Home Products 12.52 UAL 0.96 Eli Lilly 10.23 US Air 0.31 Pfizer 9.66 America West Holdings -3.27 Pharmacia & Upjohn 7.98 Continental Airlines -4.97 American Cyanamid 3.57 TWA -5.37 Northwest Airlines -3.40

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Determinants of ProfitabilityWHY?What Else?______________

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Essential Value Propositions for a Successful CompanyBusiness Model ________ Competency _________ Set corporate goals and get executive sponsorship for the initiative

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The Evolutions of EconomyOLD Economy Post Economy (2001-and Beyond)NEW Economy (1994-2000) _______/______________/ __________________Market shareTime to market/ Site visitationWallet share/ ProfitEconomies of Scale/ EfficiencyTechnology ImprovementRetaining customers/ Win serviceBased onMeasurement of successFocusN

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050100150200250300Time of market introduction relative to competition (months) Is timing for market entry really important?Profits relative to competitions (%)Relationship between profits and time of market introduction

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39%62%86%61%38%14%Business launchRevenue ImpactProfit ImpactThe Profit and Growth Consequences of Creating Blue Oceans

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Revenue Management (a.k.a. yield management) _____或_____ ?

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營收 (e-Commerce perspective) = 潛在購買人口比例 減 方圓十哩以外的潛在購買人口比例 減 ______________的人口比例 減 ______________的人口比例 ………以此類推

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IntroductionWhat is “Revenue Management”? Design service packages for different market segments using appropriate combinations of attributes such as price, amenities, purchase restrictions, and distribution channel so that the revenue of the organization is maximized. History of Revenue Management Can be traced back 40 years Prevalent after the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978

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Revenue Management (RM)RM focuses companies on revenue growth, not cost-cutting and downsizing. RM drives bottom-line increases through top-line improvements. Growth comes from the marketplace, not the workforce. The key to real growth is learning how to deal effectively and proactively with a constantly changing markets.

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Revenue Management (RM) vs. MISMIS is to deliver the right information, to the right people at the right time, with the right form RM is to sell the right _______, to the right ______ at the right ______, for the right ______ Thereby maximizing revenue from a company’s products

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Examples on Revenue ManagementA No-Tech approach to RM Barbershop A Low-Tech approach to RM Opera House A High-Tech approach to RM Airlines

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Other Examples_______ ______ _______ Broadcasting ________ ________ Etc.因應競爭台鐵擬採______票價How about in Taiwan?

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Which Industry Can Use Revenue management The same unit of capacity (e.g., airline seat) can be used to deliver services to different customer segments (e.g., business and leisure customers) at different prices. _________ capacity (it cannot be stored) and limited capacity (all possible customers cannot always be served). Capacity is sold in advance of demand. There is an opportunity to segment customers (so that different prices can be charged) and different segments are willing to pay different prices. It is not illegal or morally irresponsible to discriminate among customers.

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Matching supply to demand when supply is fixedExamples of fixed supply: Travel industries (fixed number of seats, rooms, cars, etc). Advertising time (limited number of time slots). Telecommunications bandwidth. Size of the MBA program. Doctor’s availability for appointments. Revenue management is a solution: If adjusting supply is impossible – adjust the demand! Segment customers into high willingness to pay and low willingness to pay. Limit the number of tickets sold at a low price, i.e., control the average price by changing the mix of customers.

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ObservationsRevenue management and overbooking give demand flexibility where supply flexibility is not possible. Concept and powerful tools to improve revenue: American Airlines estimated a benefit of $1.5B over 3 years. National Car Rental faced liquidation in 1993 but improved via yield management techniques. Delta Airlines credits yield management with $300M in additional revenue annually (about 2% of year 2000 revenue.)

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Project Management ImplicationsWhat are the implications from E-Commerce? Pricing _________ pricing Supply Chain Management Market segmentation Fencing Others?

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Future Readings Books Focus on Revenue Management Revenue Management: Hard-core Tactics for Market Domination (1997) by Robert G. Cross Yield Management: Strategies for the Service Industries (2000) by Anthony Ingold, Una McMahon-Beattie and Ian Yeoman’s Revenue Management and Pricing: Case Studies and Applications (2004) by Ian Yeoman and Una McMahon-Beattie The Theory and Practice of Revenue Management (2004) by Kalyan Talluri and Garrett van Ryzin Pricing and Revenue Optimization (2005) by Robert Philips

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ConclusionsThe revenue strategy decision is one of the most critical in running a business. Revenue management has a wide application potential in service sector The application of revenue management has achieved great success in many industries The research on revenue management will continue. The difference between a proper and improper revenue strategy can be the difference between success and failure for the entire business.

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The Twenty-first Century will ...The twenty-first century will witness only two kinds of companies: those that exploit Information Technology (IT) and/or with RM strategy for improving quality of Project Management those that are ______ _____ businessSource: Quality Information and Knowledge, Huang et. al., Prentice Hall

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Revenue ManagementIf you are interested in the issues of RM International Journal of Revenue Management http://www.inderscience.com/ijrm

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THANK YOU!Q/A

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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