Ancient Near East Architecture

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Ancient and Egyptian ArchitectureArchitectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp

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TopicsMesopotamia Sumer Babylon Ancient Israel Crete Mycenae

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia Mesopotamia Coexists with same time period as the Egyptians Centered around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Modern day Iraq Signs of civilization begin to appear around 4500 B.C. Peak of civilization is around 3300 B.C.

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - SumerSumer Great kingdom located in Mesopotamia Building materials were scarce Timber was completely absent and stone was very scarce Mud was used to create bricks Highly soluble in water Most structures have been destroyed due to rain and time

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - SumerSumer Architectural characteristics include: Heavy walls made of mud bricks Great massings of earth Tombs were very rare Temples of interest: Temple VIII at Eridu White Temple at Uruk

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - SumerSumer Temple VIII at Eridu Ancient site near Ur Thick walls of mud bricks Set atop a primitive mud-brick platform Featured stairs leading up to an entrance on the long side of the templePhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - SumerSumer White Temple at Uruk 3500 – 3000 B.C. Placed upon a huge mass of earth called a zigguratPhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - Babylon Babylon Neo-Babylonian Revival Culture was revived in 612 B.C. Many new temples and palaces were built Thick walls surrounded the city with a distance of some 11 miles Key locations: Ishtar Gate Tower of Babel Palace of Nebuchadnezzar

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia – BabylonBabylon Ishtar Gate Most impressive remnant of the great city Dominated the wide processional avenue and led to the inner city Partly reconstructed in the State Museum, Berlin , Germany Photo: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia – BabylonTower of Babel Most famous of all the ziggurats of ancient Mesopotamia Has been restored many times throughout the centuries No one really knows how it actually lookedPhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - BabylonBabylon Palace of Nebuchadnezzar The most grandiose palace in Babylon Featured the Hanging Gardens One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Approximately 900 by 600 ft. in size Has been praised by many historians for its many splendid features

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Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia - BabylonPhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: Ancient IsraelAncient Israel King Solomon’s Temple Built around the 10th century B.C. Located atop Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem Rectangular structure surrounded by open courtyards Rebuilt two times due to invaders The third temple is associated with the Christian New Testament Destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans

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Ancient Near East: Ancient IsraelPhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: Ancient IsraelAncient Israel Wailing Wall in Jerusalem is believed to be the last remnants of Solomon’s third templePhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: CreteCrete Key locations: City of Troy Was thought to be a mythical location until the 1870’s A.D. Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann Palace at Knossos c. 1700 – 1400 B.C. Possibly built for King Midas Only the ground floor has survived the centuries

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Ancient Near East: CretePhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: CretePhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: MycenaeMycenae Modern day Greece A great society of warriors More interested architecturally in citadels rather than pleasure palaces Recognized the importance of geometry and proportions in architecture

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Ancient Near East: MycenaeMycenae Two important structures: Citadel at Tyrins Best preserved citadel of Mycenae Up to 36 ft. thick walls Lined with galleries that featured massive corbelled ceilings Treasury of Atreus Large dome shaped tomb dating back to 1300 B.C. Photo: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: MycenaePhoto: Sullivan

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Ancient Near East: MycenaePhoto: Sullivan

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ReferencesSullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture

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Ancient and Egyptian ArchitectureArchitectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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