ancient mesopotamia- “the land between the rivers”

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA: “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS”

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GEOGRAPHYin the Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, both of which flow into the Persian Gulf located in present day Iraq

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Mesopotamia

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA GEOGRAPHYPOSITIVES abundant amount of clay easy till-able soil water supply from Tigris-Euphrates RiversNEGATIVESfew natural resources minimal protection from deserts and mountains

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CITY-STATE: a self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmlands

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA-SUMERIAN CIVILIZATIONBELIEVED TO BE SETTLED CA. 3000 B.C. DIVIDED INTO CITY-STATES HELPED TO DEVELOP THE FIRST FORM OF ORGANIZED RELIGION CREATED ONE OF THE EARLIEST FORMS OF WRITING

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN CITY-STATESALWAYS IN CONSTANT CONFLICT OVER WATER RIGHTS AND LAND CREATED WALLS FOR PROTECTION WITH MOATS ALONG THE OUTSIDE FARMS WERE LOCATED ALONG THE OUTSIDE OF THE CITY

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Sumerians invented:the wheel units of time – 60 minutes in an hour and 60 seconds in a minute a 12 month lunar calendar the arch the ramp

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN RELIGIONEach city-state had their own gods and goddesses, but the Sun gods were the most important. Life after death was an extension of life.

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Zigguratslarge pyramid shaped structures temples of the main gods thought to be connected to heaven and earth Ziggurat: “center for learning and religion”

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Ziggurat – Holy Mountain

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How to Build a Ziggurathttp://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/ziggurats/challenge/cha_set.html

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Sumerian ReligionMonotheism: worshiping one god. “Mono” – means one Polytheism: worshiping many gods. “Poly” – means many

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Writing: Cuneiform

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN WRITINGCALLED CUNEIFORM (LATIN FOR WEDGE) WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS NEEDED FOR RELIGION, GOVERNMENT AND TRADE LEARNED IN SCHOOL BY MALES

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How is cuneiform created?by pressing a pointed stylus into a clay tablet

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cuneiform

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMYMake, sell or barter goods. Trade helped expansion. Development of money… Will evolve over time.

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN ECONOMYRICHgovernment officials religious leaders tradersPOORfarmers craftsman

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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- SUMERIAN PASTIMESEntertainment No longer had to hunt and gather. More time for fun times. Rich had more time than poor. Activities: BOARD GAMES INSTRUMENTS BARE FISTED BOXING Activities geared toward young and used for socializing.

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The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived.agriculture (farming) growth of cities division of labor (specialization) trade writing and mathematics

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Mesopotamian CivilizationSumeria Akkadians Babylonians Lydians Hittites Chaldeans Assyrians Persians Phoenicians

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Hittitesmajor advancement: iron weapons Note the locations of: Hittites Assyrians Akkadians

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AssyriansChief God: Assur major advancements: chariots and cavalry

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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