Ancient Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Mesopotamia & Ancient Egypt

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Summarize the impact of the Neolithic RevolutionWARM-UP:

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Comparison: Old Stone Age vs. New Stone AgeOld Stone Age (Paleolithic) Began: 2.5 million B.C. Ended: 8,000 B.C. Achievement(s): Made stone chopping tools

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Comparison: Old Stone Age vs. New Stone Age More About the Paleolithic Age:People of Old Stone Age were nomads & hunter-gatherers (wandered from place to place) Used stone, bone, & wood to craft special tools to kill game, catch fish, & pry plants loose

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Comparison: Old Stone Age vs. New Stone AgeNew Stone Age (Neolithic) Began: 8,000 B.C. Ended: 3,000 B.C. Achievement(s): Polished stone tools, made pottery, grew crops, raised animals

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The Neolithic Revolution Factors that led to Agricultural Revolution:Discovery that scattered seeds grew into crops Rising temperatures Rich supply of grain Food demands of small population boom

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Impact of the Neolithic RevolutionFarming = steady source of food

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Impact of the Neolithic Revolution Domestication of AnimalsTamed & herded animals into human-made enclosures – constant source of food

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Impact of the Neolithic Revolution Slash-and-Burn FarmingFarmers cleared land, burned debris Ash used to fertilize soil Planted crops on land they cleared

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Neolithic Revolution Village & Town Life BeginsEconomic Changes Irrigation systems Food surpluses Prosperous economy New skills & crafts Expanded trade between villages

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Neolithic Revolution Village & Town Life BeginSocial Changes Complex social relationships Development of social classes More organized religion

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Neolithic Revolution Cities Emerge & GrowEconomic Changes Expansion of trade over a wider area Specialized workers Varied crafts Advanced technology

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Neolithic Revolution Cities Emerge & GrowSocial Changes Soaring populations Emergence of gov’t to maintain order System of writing to keep records, taxes, & laws Formal religious institutions

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Civilizations Arise The Five Marks of CivilizationAdvanced Cities Center for trade for a large area Provided markets for local farmers, merchants, & traders Examples: Ur, Babylon (Sumer) Memphis, Thebes (Egypt) Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro (Indus Valley) Luoyang, Yangzhou (China)

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Civilizations Arise The Five Marks of CivilizationSpecialized Workers Need grew as cities grew Began to become experts in a particular type of work Examples: Gov’t official Scribe Priest Potter Metalworker or other artisan

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Civilizations Arise The Five Marks of CivilizationComplex Institutions Growing cities required a system of gov’t & established laws Examples: Gov’t Religion Economy

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Civilizations Arise The Five Marks of CivilizationRecord Keeping As institutions became more complex, people needed to be able to keep track of taxes, grain storage, & passage of time Examples: Cuneiform (Sumerians) Hieroglyphics (Egyptians)

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Civilizations Arise The Five Marks of CivilizationImproved Technology New tools & equipment needed to make life easier for growing groups of people Occurred in both farming & work of artisans Examples: Ox-drawn plows Irrigation systems Potter’s wheel Invention of bronze

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Explain how geographic features and cultural diffusion affected the development of ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egyptian River Valley civilizationsWARM-UP:

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Geographic Features Mesopotamia – The Fertile CrescentCurved shape of land including lands facing Mediterranean Sea & plain between Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

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Geographic Features Mesopotamia – The Fertile CrescentFlooded yearly (unpredictable) leaving behind a thick mud called silt Farmers planted crops in rich soil Resulted in plentiful harvests  allowed villages to grow

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Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for SumeriansChallenge: Unpredictable flooding with a period of little to no rain. Land sometimes became almost a desert.

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Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for SumeriansSolution: Dug irrigation ditches that carried river water to their fields Led to production of surplus crops

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Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for SumeriansChallenge: No natural barriers for protection (defenseless)

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Geographic Features Environmental Challenges for SumeriansSolution: Built city walls with mud bricks

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Last Updated: 8th March 2018

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