An Introduction to Electrical Engineering

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An Introduction to Electrical EngineeringAaron GliebermanAugust 5, 2010


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010


Earnings distribution by engineering specialty, May 2008 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010


Average Starting Salaries: July 2009 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010


Overview-Brief history, disciplines, curriculum -Review of electrical principles Guest Speaker: Dr. Jerry Daniels, Ph.D. Lab visit: Daniels Lab


What is electrical engineering?The study of ELECTRICITY along with its numerous applications


A brief historyIn 1600, William Gilbert called the property of attracting particles after being rubbed “electricus”.De Magnete was a treatise of electricity and magnetism, noting a long list of elements that could be electrified.A versoriumGilbert invented the versorium, a device that detected statically-charged bodiesWilliam Gilbert, arguably the first electrical engineer


A brief history1800 – voltaic pile developed by Alessandro Volta, a precursor to the battery1831 – Michael Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction1873 – Electricity and Magnetism published by James Maxwell, describing a theory for electromagnetismVoltaic pileCircuits containing inductorsMaxwell’s equations


A brief history1888 – Heinrich Hertz transmits and receives radio signals 1941 – Konrad Zuse introduces the first ever programmable computer1947 – invention of transistorSpark-gap transmitterZ3 computerTransistor


A brief history1958 – integrated circuit developed by Jack Kilby1968 – first microprocessor is developedIntegrated circuitsMicroprocessor


So where is the field now?


Fields of studyPower: Creation, storage, and distribution of electricityControl: Design of dynamic systems and controllers for the systemsElectronics/Microelectronics: Design of integrated circuits, microprocessors, etc.Signal Processing: Analysis of signals


Telecommunications: Design of transmission systems (voice, data)Computer: Design and development of computer systemsInstrumentation: Design of sensors and data acquisition equipmentFields of study


Curriculum at BrownEngineering coreSpecialty classes-Bioelectrical engineering-Communications systems-Computer engineering-Multimedia signal processing-Microelectrode systems-Solid state electronics and Optoeletronics-Basic engineering (statics, dynamics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics) -Basic chemistry -Basic math (multivariable calculus, statistics, differential equations)Advanced electrical classes-Signal analysis-Digital electronics


Basic concepts✴ Electricity ✴ Charge ✴ Current ✴ Voltage ✴ Power and Energy


ElectricityPhysical phenomenon arising from the existence and interactions of electric charge


ChargeWhere can we observe/experience/use charge?


ChargeCharacteristic property of subatomic particles responsible for electric phenomena1.602×10−19 C−1.602×10−19 C-+ElectronProtonThe unit of quantity of electric charge is coloumb (C) 1 coloumb = 6.25 × 1018 e e = elementary charge = charge of proton


Charge“Charged” particles exhibit forcesOpposite charges attract one anotherLike charges repel each other--+-Charge is the source of one of the fundamental forces in nature (others?)


Coulomb’s Lawq1q2r (meters)(Newtons)F1,2 is the electrostatic force exerted on charge 1 due to the presence of charge 2ke is the Coulomb constant ke = 8.987 x 109 N*m2*C-2


Electric currentDescribes charge in motion, the flow of chargeThis phenomenon can result from moving electrons in a conductive material or moving ions in charged solutions


Electric currentAn ampere (A) is the number of electrons having a total charge of 1 C moving through a given cross section in 1 s.As defined, current flows in direction of positive charge flow


Electrical Circuits


Electric circuitAn electric circuit is an interconnection of electrical elements linked together in a closed path so that electric current may flow continuouslyCircuit diagrams are the standard for electrical engineers


Rate of flow of charge form node a to node bRate of flow of charge form node b to node a(i = current)A direct current (dc) is a current of constant magnitudeAn alternating current (ac) is a current of varying magnitude and direction


VoltageDriving “force” of electrical current between two pointsVabVbaVoltage at terminal a with respect to terminal bVoltage at terminal b with respect to terminal aVab = -Vba Note: In a circuit, voltage is often defined relative to “ground”

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