Fluid and Electrolytes
created by S. Buckley, RN, MS copyright:2012 all rights reserved Homeostasis State of equilibrium in body
Naturally maintained by adaptive responses
Body fluids and electrolytes are maintained within narrow limits Why nurses need to understand
fluid and electrolytes?Important to anticipate the potential for alterations in fluid and electrolyte balance associated with certain disorders and medical therapies, to recognize the signs and symptoms of imbalances, and to intervene with the appropriate action. Enhanced understanding and management of fluids and electrolytesComposition of body fluids
Fluid compartments/Extracellular fluid osmolality
Factors that affect movement of water and solutes
Regulation of vascular volume
Facilitated by clinical condition understanding, nursing assessment, lab analysis Composition of body fluids
(water content of body)60% of body weight in adult
45% to 55% in older adults
70% to 80% in infants
Varies with gender, body mass, and age Changes in Water Content with AgeFig. 17-1 Composition of body fluidsIn addition to water, the body contains solutes; substances the separate in solution and conduct electrical current.
Concentration of solutes in solution=osmolality or osmolarity.
May by electrolytes or non-electrolytes:
Cations(+), Na, K
Anions (-), CL, HCO-3 (bicarbonate), PO
Non-electrolytes (glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin) ...